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Estate Planning State Laws:
Creating a Valid Will

This chart highlights the state laws related to estate planning and creating a valid will, including the type of will allowed in your state (statutory, written, oral), the number of witnesses required, whether you need a notary, and more. Check back often, as this chart is updated frequently.

If you don't find what you're looking for, see our chart of state laws related to Funeral Designations.

For more information, see our Estate Planning Materials & Resources, and our State-Specific Estate Planning Toolkit.

StateWritten/Oral/ StatutoryNumber of Witnesses RequiredNotarization RequiredProbate Process: UPC/Non-UPCNotesHas Statutory Will FormState Allows for Remote Execution of Estate Planning DocumentsRemote Execution of Estate Planning Notes
ALABAMAWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/al-senate-bill-275
ALASKAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/ak-house-bill-124
ARIZONAWritten2Self-ProvingUPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://www.americanbar.org/groups/gpsolo/publications/gpsolo_ereport/2021/october-2021/electronic-wills-state-legislation/
ARKANSASWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.arkleg.state.ar.us/Acts/FTPDocument?path=%2FACTS%2F2021R%2FPublic%2F&file=1047.pdf&ddBienniumSession=2021%2F2021R
CALIFORNIAWritten/Statutory2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Not requiredNon-UPCxhttp://www.calbar.ca.gov/Portals/0/documents/CAStatutoryWillForm_ab_1986_bill_20100715_chaptered.pdfRemote notarization still under discussion (Bill still in negotiation)https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=202120220AB1093
COLORADOWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://www.americanbar.org/groups/gpsolo/publications/gpsolo_ereport/2021/october-2021/electronic-wills-state-legislation/
CONNECTICUTWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCRemote notarization still under discussionhttps://www.cga.ct.gov/2022/BA/PDF/2022SB-00099-R01-BA.PDF
DELAWAREWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://legis.delaware.gov/json/BillDetail/GenerateHtmlDocumentEngrossment?engrossmentId=25156&docTypeId=6Remote notarization will be effective on August 01, 2023.
*DISTRICT OF COLUMBIAWritten2Not requiredNon-UPCPending Legislationhttps://lims.dccouncil.gov/Legislation/B24-0450Considering adoption of e-wills and remote notatization
FLORIDAWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttp://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=0700-0799/0732/Sections/0732.524.html
GEORGIAWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCEmergency Action ended. Remote notarization is still under discussion.
HAWAIIWritten2 (But allows holographic wills which don't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://ag.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/SB2275_HD2_.pdf
IDAHOWritten2 (But allows holographic wills which don't require witnessesSelf-ProvingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/id-administrative-rules-2022Allowing electronic wills is under discussion.https://legislature.idaho.gov/wp-content/uploads/sessioninfo/2021/legislation/S1077.pdf
ILLINOISWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://www.ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/ilcs4.asp?DocName=075500060HArt%2E+5&ActID=4176&ChapterID=60&SeqStart=700000&SeqEnd=1100000#:~:text=Signing%20electronic%20wills.,2%20or%20more%20credible%20witnesses.
INDIANAWritten/Oral (I.C. 29-1-5-4)2Not requiredNon-UPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://iga.in.gov/legislative/laws/2022/ic/titles/029#29-1-21-4
IOWAWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.legis.iowa.gov/docs/ico/chapter/9B.pdf; https://www.legis.iowa.gov/docs/aco/arc/5041C.pdf
KANSASWritten/Oral (K.S.A. 59-608)2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/ks-permanent-regulations-2022; https://sos.ks.gov/publications/Register/Volume-41/Issues/Issue-41/10-13-22-50591.html
KENTUCKYWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/ky-administrative-regulations-2020
LOUISIANAWritten2Required in addition to witnessesNon-UPCNuncupative testament by private act (CCP 2884) and Mystic testament (CCP 2885) must be proved by 3 witnessesAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/la-administrative-rules-2022; https://www.doa.la.gov/media/fnzhilq0/2201.pdf
MAINEWritten/Statutory2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCxhttp://legislature.maine.gov/statutes/18-C/title18-Csec2-517.pdfAdopted Remote Notarization effective 7/1/23http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/bills/getPDF.asp?paper=HP1503&item=6&snum=130
MARYLANDWritten2Not requiredNon-UPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2022RS/bills/hb/hb0576T.pdf; https://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2022RS/bills/sb/sb0036T.pdf
MASSACHUSETTSWritten2Self-ProvingUPCTemporary remote notarization extended to March 31, 2023.https://www.mass.gov/info-details/massachusetts-law-about-notaries-public; https://malegislature.gov/Laws/SessionLaws/Acts/2022/Chapter107
MICHIGANWritten/Statutory2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCxhttp://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(cdhuhhkfgz0ngz2tn4yfjsjk))/documents/mcl/pdf/mcl-700-2519.pdfEmergency remote notarization and witnessing ended in July, 2021. Allowing electronic wills is under discussion.http://www.legislature.mi.gov/(S(xek3jxfgjabktbmyaadnkvq2))/mileg.aspx?page=GetObject&objectname=2020-HB-5795
MINNESOTAWritten2Self-ProvingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.sos.state.mn.us/notary-apostille/notary-help/remote-online-notarization-authorization-faq/; https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/cite/358
MISSISSIPPIWritten/Oral2Self-ProvingNon-UPCOral will must be written within 6 months to be probated.Adopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/ms-house-bill-1156; http://billstatus.ls.state.ms.us/documents/2020/pdf/HB/1100-1199/HB1156SG.pdf
MISSOURIWritten/Oral2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/mo-rules-remote-online-notarization-2021
MONTANAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://leg.mt.gov/bills/2019/billhtml/HB0370.htm
NEBRASKAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://sos.nebraska.gov/business-services/electronic-notary-statutes
NEVADAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://www.leg.state.nv.us/nrs/nrs-133.html#NRS133Sec085
NEW HAMPSHIREWritten/Oral (only for soldiers; N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 551:15)2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted remote notarization but estate planning documents cannot be remotely notarized.https://legiscan.com/NH/text/SB134/2021
NEW JERSEYWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted remote notarization but estate planning documents cannot be remotely notarized.https://pub.njleg.state.nj.us/Bills/2020/S3000/2508_R2.PDF
NEW MEXICOWritten/Statutory2Self-ProvingUPCxhttps://willforms.org/wp-content/uploads/New-Mexico-Last-Will-and-Testament-Form.pdfAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/nm-administrative-rules-2021; https://www.srca.nm.gov/nmac/nmregister/xxxii/12.9.4.htmlhttps://pub.njleg.state.nj.us/Bills/2020/S3000/2508_R2.PDF
NEW YORKWritten/Oral (limited to military NY CLS EPTL § 3-2.2)2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nysenate.gov/legislation/bills/2021/S1780
NORTH CAROLINA2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)2Self-ProvingNon-UPCRemote notarization will be effective from July 01, 2023, but estate planning documents cannot be remotely notarized.https://www.ncleg.gov/Sessions/2021/Bills/House/PDF/H776v6.pdf
NORTH DAKOTAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingUPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://www.ndlegis.gov/cencode/t30-1c37.pdf
OHIOWritten/Oral (Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2107.60)2Not requiredNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://codes.ohio.gov/ohio-revised-code/section-147.64Remote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
OKLAHOMAWritten/Oral (limited to military Okla. Stat. tit. 84 § 84-46)2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/ok-senate-bill-915; http://webserver1.lsb.state.ok.us/cf_pdf/2019-20%20ENR/SB/SB915%20ENR.PDFRemote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
OREGONWritten2Self-ProvingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.oregonlegislature.gov/bills_laws/ors/ors194.html
PENNSYLVANIAWritten2Self-provingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/legis/li/uconsCheck.cfm?yr=2020&sessInd=0&act=97
*PUERTO RICOWritten/Oral (31 L.P.R.A. § 11261-71)0YesNon-UPCOral will admitted in video only in immediate danger of death.https://bvirtualogp.pr.gov/ogp/Bvirtual/leyesreferencia/PDF/55-2020.pdf
RHODE ISLANDWritten2Self-provingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/ri-house-bill-7363-senate-bill-2705Adopted remote notarization but doesn't apply to wills and trustshttps://www.scstatehouse.gov/sess124_2021-2022/bills/631.htm
SOUTH CAROLINAWritten2Self-provingUPCNot allowed
SOUTH DAKOTAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-provingUPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.nationalnotary.org/knowledge-center/news/law-updates/sd-house-bill-1272Remote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
TENNESSEEWritten/Oral (Tenn. Code Ann. § 32-1-106)2Self-proving (for wills executed prior to July 1, 2016, see Tenn. Code. Ann. § 32-1-104(b))Non-UPCHas an informal probate process similar UPC statesAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://law.justia.com/codes/tennessee/2021/title-8/chapter-16/part-3/
TEXASWritten/Oral (only if made before September 1, 2007)2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-provingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://statutes.capitol.texas.gov/Docs/GV/htm/GV.406.htm#406.101Remote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
UTAHWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-provingUPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://le.utah.gov/xcode/Title75/Chapter2/75-2-S1401.html; https://le.utah.gov/~2020S6/bills/static/HB6001.html#75-2-1408; https://notary.utah.gov/2019/10/22/remote-notary-law/
VERMONTWritten2Not requiredNon-UPCOral will (14 V.S.A. § 6) repealed (2017, No. 195 (Adj. Sess.), § 1.)Adopted Remote Notarizationhttps://legislature.vermont.gov/Documents/2022/Docs/BILLS/H-0512/H-0512%20As%20Passed%20by%20Both%20House%20and%20Senate%20Official.pdfRemote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
VIRGINIAWritten2Self-provingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://law.lis.virginia.gov/vacode/title19.2/chapter1/section19.2-3.1/Remote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
WASHINGTONWritten/Oral (limited to military. Wash. Rev. Code § 11 12-025)2Self-provingNon-UPCAdopted E-wills and Remote Notatizationhttps://app.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=11.12
WEST VIRGINIAWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-provingNon-UPCHas an informal probate process similar UPC statesAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.wvlegislature.gov/Bill_Status/bills_text.cfm?billdoc=SB469%20SUB1%20ENR.htm&yr=2021&sesstype=RS&i=469Remote notary is allowed, remote witnessing is not
WISCONSINWritten/Statutory2Self-provingNon-UPCxhttps://law.marquette.edu/assets/community/pdf/mvlc_bb_handout5.pdfAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/2019/related/acts/125
WYOMINGWritten2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Self-provingNon-UPCAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://www.wyoleg.gov/2021/Engross/SF0029.pdf
GUAMWritten (Probate Code of Guam § 50)2 (But allows holographic will, which doesn't require witnesses)Non-UPCMore Informationhttp://www.guamcourts.org/CompilerofLaws/GCA/15gca/15gc002.PDFAdopted Remote Notarizationhttps://law.justia.com/codes/guam/2021/title-5/division-3/chapter-33/5 Guam Code §§ 33801-811